What are Acronyms?
Australians used the -o suffix a lot, he reflected.
Arvo, smoko, garbo, journo.
I asked if they were familiar with the Oz usage 'acco', meaning 'academic'.
I hoped, after I left, they would enter it on one of their little slips and add it to their gigantic compost heap - a candidate for admission to the next edition.
We trust that Edmund Weiner and John Simpson did not take a citation, since the Australian abbreviation of academic is not acco but acca sometimes spelt acker.
The abbreviation first appears in Meanjin Melbourne, 1977where Canberra historian Ken Inglis has an article titled 'Accas and Ockers: Australia's New Dictionaries'.
The editor of Meanjin, Jim Davidson, adds a footnote: 'acca slightly derogatory 1, noun An academic rather than an intellectual, particularly adept at manipulating trendiologies, usually with full scholarly apparatus.
Hence 2, noun A particularly sterile piece of academic writing.
This idiom is derived from acid test which is a test for gold or other precious metal, usually using nitric acid.
Acid test is also used figuratively to refer to a severe or conclusive test.
The Australian idiom emerged in the early 20th century and is still heard today.
When the stewards 'put the acid on' the riders it was found that only one exhibit in a very big field carried a boy who was not over ten years old.
It would put the acid on putative challengers and catch them out if they are not ready.
Aerial ping-pong A jocular and frequently derisive name for Australian Rules Football or Aussie Rules as it is popularly called.
The term derives from the fact that the play in this game is characterised by frequent exchanges of long and high kicks.
The term is used largely by people from States in which Rugby League and not Aussie Rules is the major football code.
This interstate and code rivalry is often found in evidence for the term, including the early evidence from the 1940s.
Dunn, How to Play Football: Sydneysiders like to call Australian Rules 'aerial ping-pong'.
A team from Sydney was admitted to the national competition in 1982, and one from Brisbane was admitted in 1987.
These teams are based in traditional Rugby League areas, yet have drawn very large crowds, and have been very successful.
While the term is perhaps not as common as it once was there is still evidence from more recent years.
At the Brownlow Medal night the likes of Chris Judd's fiancee Rebecca Twigley and Gary Ablett's girlfriend Lauren Phillips certainly scrub up well.
It is a significant feature of rural Australia, of politicians especially urban-based politicians travelling in the outback, and of expatriates who wish to emphasis their Australianness.
Now a proprietary name, our earliest evidence comes from an advertisement.
Yes, the smartest hat that's made in our own country may be seen in our hat department.
The makes include 'Sovereign', 'Vebistra', 'Akubra', 'Peerless', 'Beaucaire'.
In later use chiefly as ambit claim.
In Australian English an ambit claim is one typically made by employees which sets the boundaries of an industrial dispute.
The term is a specific use of ambit meaning 'extent, compass'.
First recorded in the 1920s.
Mr Justice Powers to-day delivered judgment on the point.
He said that the ambit of the dispute before the Court was confined to constructional work, but that the Court could and would deal with claims for maintenance work.
This is an abbreviation that follows a very common Australian pattern of word formation, with —o added to the abbreviated form.
Other examples include: arvo afternoonSalvo Salvation army officerdermo dermatologistand gyno gynaecologist.
The -o form is often found at the ending of Australian nicknames, as in Johno, Jacko, and Robbo.
Ambo was first recorded in the 1980s.
Ant's pants is an Australian variant of the originally US forms bee's knees and cat's whiskers with the same meaning.
The term is first recorded in the 1930s.
They're the Ant's Pants for Value.
Parsons Return to Moondilla: 'Liz is busting to see you', Pat said.
Anzac denotes the virtues of courage and determination displayed by the First World War Australian soldiers at Gallipoli in 1915.
Anzac was formed from the initial letters of Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.
Anzac biscuit A sweet biscuit typically containing rolled oats and golden syrup.
While variations on this classic recipe exist, its simplicity is its hallmark.
The association with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps goes back to 1917 when the recipe was first recorded.
The biscuits are also known simply as Anzacs.
The following quotations show the evolution of the recipe: 1917 War Chest Cookery Book Australian Comforts Fund : Anzac Biscuits.
Beat butter and sugar to cream, add eggs well beaten, lastly flour, rice flour baking powder, cinnamon and spice.
Mix to stiff paste, roll and cut into biscuits.
Bake a nice light brown in moderate oven.
When cold jam together and ice.
Two breakfast-cupfuls of John Bull oats, half a cupful sugar, one scant cupful plain flour, half a cupful melted butter.
Mix one table-spoonful golden syrup, two table-spoonfuls boiling water, and one teaspoon-ful bicarbonate of soda, until they froth, then add the melted butter.
Mix in dry ingredients and drop in spoonfuls on greased tray.
Bake in a slow oven.
Australian English often uses the feminine pronoun she where standard English would use it.
She's apples was originally rhyming slang - apple and spice or apple and rice for 'nice'.
The phrase has now lost all connection with its rhyming slang origin.
First recorded in the 1920s the term can still be heard today.
MacQuarrie We and Baby: 'She'll be apples!
It is often used in the phrase this arvo, which is sometimes shortened to sarvo: meet you after the game, sarvo.
Arvo is an example of a special feature of Australian English, the habit of adding -o to an abbreviated word.
First recorded in the 1920s and still going strong today.
The phrase was first recorded in the 1940s.
In recent years it has also been used with reference to questions of gender identity, and in this sense it has been casino pc 2020 to other countries.
The abbreviation Aussie is a typical example of the way Australians abbreviate words and then add the -ie or -y suffix.
Other common examples includes budgie a budgerigarrellie a relativeand tradie a tradesperson.
The word is used as a noun to refer to the country and to a person born or residing in the country, and as an adjective denoting something relating to Australia.
Aussie is also used as an abbreviation for 'Australian English' and the 'Australian dollar'.
The earliest evidence for Aussie occurs in the context of the First World War.
Moberly Experiences 'Dinki Di' R.
Nurse 1933 : Top gambling destinations the 2020 farewell dance for the boys going home to 'Aussie' tomorrow.
Moberly Experiences 'Dinki Di' R.
Nurse 1933 : One of our Aussie officers.
From the early sixteenth century, European philosophers and mapmakers assumed a great southern continent existed south of Asia.
They called this hypothetical place Terra Australis, Latin for 'southern land'.
The first European contact with Australia was in the early seventeenth century, when Dutch explorers touched on parts of the Australian continent.
As a result of their explorations, that part of the mainland lying west of the meridian which passes through Torres Strait was named Nova Hollandia Latin for 'New Holland'.
In April 1770 Captain James Cook and the crew of the Endeavour reached the southern land.
Cook entered the word Astralia misspelt thus in his journal the following August.
However he did so only in reference to an earlier seeker of the southern land, the Portuguese-born navigator Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, who in 1606 had named the New Hebrides Austrialis de Spiritu Santo.
Cook says: The Islands discover'd by Quiros call'd by him Astralia del Espiritu Santo lays in this parallel but how far to the East is hard to say.
Cook himself called the new continent New Holland, a name that acknowledges link early Dutch exploration; the eastern coast he claimed for Britain and called New South Wales.
The first written record of Australia an anglicised form of Terra Australis as a name for the known continent did not occur until 1794.
George Shaw in his Zoology of New Holland refers to: the vast Island or rather Continent of Australia, Australasia, or New Holland, which has so lately attracted.
It was Matthew Flinders, English navigator and the first person to circumnavigate and map Australia's coastlinewho first expressed a strong preference for the name Australia.
He gave his reasons in 1805: It is necessary, however, to geographical propriety, that the whole body of land should be designated under one general name; on this account, and under the circumstances of the discovery of the different parts, it seems best to refer back to the original Terra Australis, or Australia; which being descriptive of its situation, having antiquity to recommend it, and no reference to either of the two claiming nations, is perhaps the least objectionable that could have been chosen; for it is little to apprehended, that any considerable body of land, in a more southern situation, will be hereafter discovered.
To these geographical, historical and political reasons for preferring the name, he adds in his 1814 account of his voyages that Australia is 'agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth'.
Australia was championed too by Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810, who was aware of Flinders' preference and popularised the name by using it in official dispatches to London.
He writes in 1817 of: the Continent of Australia, which I hope will be the Name given to this country in future, instead of the very erroneous and misapplied name, hitherto given it, of 'New Holland', which properly speaking only applies to a part of this immense Continent.
With Macquarie's kickstart Australia eventually proved to be the popular choice.
Although the name New Holland continued alongside it for some time, by 1861 William Westgarth noted that 'the old term New Holland may now be regarded as supplanted by that happier and fitter one of Australia'.
B banana bender A Queenslander.
The term derives from the joking notion as perceived from the southern states of Australia that Queenslanders spend their time putting bends into bananas.
An article from 15 July 1937 in the Queenslander provides a forerunner to the term when a man is asked by the Queen what his occupation is: "I'm a banana-bender".
Further to enlighten her Majesty he explained that bananas grew straight on the trees, and so just before they ripened, his was the job to mount the ladder, and with a specialised twist of the wrist, put into the fruit the Grecian bend that was half its charm.
The association of bananas with Queensland 'banana land' is based on the extensive banana-growing industry in tropical Queensland.
The Queensland border has been called the Banana curtain and Brisbane has been called Banana city.
Banana bender, in reference to a Queenslander, is first recorded in 1940 and is till commonly heard.
Lockwood Up the Track: We are so close to Queensland that I think we should hop over the border.
What do think, casino bonus 2020 april that say to a quick look at the banana-benders?
In 1799 David Collins writes of the 'bones of small animals, such as opossums.
From 1830s the word bandicoot has been used in various distinctively Australian phrases as an emblem of deprivation or desolation.
Watson in Lecture on South Australia writes: 'The land here is generally good; there is a small proportion that is actually good for nothing; to use a colonial phrase, "a bandicoot an animal between a rat and a rabbit would starve upon it".
It means 'to remove potatoes from the ground, leaving the tops undisturbed'.
Usually this activity is surreptitious.
The bandicooter goes at night to a field of ripe potatoes and carefully extracts the tubers from the roots without disturbing the tops.
Bandicoots are small marsupials with long faces, and have been given a role in Australian English in similes that suggest unhappiness or some kind of deprivation see above.
The expression miserable as a bandicoot was first recorded in the 1820s.
Siemon The Eccentric Mr Wienholt: I am as miserable as a bandicoot having to sneak home like this.
Banksia is the name of an Australian genus of shrubs and trees with about 60 species.
It was named after the botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who was on the Endeavour with James Cook on his voyage of discovery in 1770.
It was on such grotesque shapes that May Gibbs modelled her banksia men in Crap english meaning acronym and Cuddlepie of 1918: 'She could see the glistening, wicked eyes of Mrs.
Snake and the bushy heads of the bad Banksia men'.
Prichard Bid me to Love: Louise:.
See what I've got in my pocket for you.
Bill: diving into a pocket of her coat and pulling out a banksia cone A banksia man.
Smith Saddle in the Kitchen: Hell was under the well near the cow paddock, deep and murky and peopled by gnarled and knobby banksia men who lurked there waiting for the unguarded to fall in.
The term derives from the notion that a topic is so interesting that it could halt proceedings at a barbecue - and anything that could interrupt an Aussie barbecue would have to be very significant indeed!
The term was coined by Australian prime minister John Howard in 2001 in the context of balancing work pressures with family responsibilities.
Barbecue stopper is now used in a wide range of contexts.
For an earlier discussion of the term see our 2007 Sun-Herald Sydney 11 March: Controlled crying is a guaranteed barbecue stopper among Australian parents, more divisive than the old breast-versus-bottle feeding debate.
Barcoo The name of the Barcoo River in western Queensland has been used since the 1870s as a shorthand reference for the hardships, privations, and living conditions of the outback.
Poor diets were common in remote areas, with little access to fresh vegetables or fruit, and as a result diseases caused by dietary deficiencies, such Barcoo rot—a form of scurvy characterised by chronic sores—were common.
Another illness probably caused by poor diet was Barcoo sickness also called Barcoo vomit, Barcoo spew, or just Barcooa condition characterised by vomiting.
Barcoo can also typify the laconic bush wit.
Some claim barrack comes from Australian pidgin to poke borak at 'to deride', but its origin is probably from Northern Irish barrack 'to brag; to be boastful'.
By itself barrack meant 'to jeer' and still does in British Englishbut the form barrack for transformed the jeering into cheering in Australian English.
First recorded in the 1880s.
Williamson Don's Party: I take it you'll be barracking for Labor tonight?
In horseracing the barrier is a starting gate at the racecourse.
The word barrier is found in a number of horseracing terms in Australian English including barrier blanket a heavy blanket placed over the flanks of a racehorse to calm it when entering a barrier stall at the start of a racebarrier trial a practice race for young, inexperienced, or resuming racehorsesand barrier rogue a racehorse that regularly misbehaves when being placed into a starting gate.
Barrier rise is first recorded in the 1890s.
For a more detailed discussion of this term see our 1895 Argus Melbourne 11 March: Mr W.
Wilson's here Merman, who, like Hova, was comparatively friendless at barrier rise.
The word is a borrowing from French in the Middle English period, and meant, literally, 'a person who battles or fights', and figuratively 'a person who fights against the odds or does not give up easily'.
The corresponding English word was feohtan which gives us modern English 'to fight'.
English also borrowed the word war from the French in the twelfth century; it's the same word as modern French guerre.
But the word battler, at the end of the nineteenth century, starts to acquire some distinctively Australian connotations.
For this reason, it gets a guernsey in the Australian National Dictionary.
It describes the person with few natural advantages, who works doggedly and with little reward, who bonus for 2020 players code existing pokerstars for a livelihood and who displays courage in so doing.
Our first citation for this, not surprisingly, comes from Henry Lawson in While the Billy Boils 1896 : 'I sat on him pretty hard for his pretensions, and paid him out for all the patronage he'd worked off on me.
In 1941 Kylie Tennant writes: 'She was a battler, Snow admitted; impudent, hardy, cool, and she could take a "knock-back" as though it didn't matter, and come up to meet the next blow'.
In this tradition, K.
Smith writes in 1965: 'Everybody in Australia has his position.
Roughly speaking, there are three kinds of people in this country: the rich, the middle class and the battlers'.
In the 21st century the term has been used in various political contests as this quotation in the Australian from 1 July 2006 demonstrates: 'The Prime Minister, who has built his success on an appeal to Australia's battlers, is about to meet thousands more of them in his northern Sydney seat of Bennelong'.
It has also been used of an unemployed or irregularly employed person.
This sense is first recorded in the Bulletin in 1898: 'I found patch after patch destroyed.
Almost everyone I met blamed the unfortunate "battler", and I put it down to some of the Sydney "talent" until.
I caught two Chows vigorously destroying melon-vines'.
Again in the Bulletin in 1906 we find: 'They were old, white-bearded, travel-stained battlers of the track'.
Frank Hardy in Tales of Billy Yorker 1965 writes: 'Any Footscray battler could get a few quid off Murphy, just for the asking'.
A person who frequents racecourses in search of a living, esp.
The word is used in Australia with this sense from the end of the nineteenth century.
Cornelius Crowe in his Australian Slang Dictionary 1895 gives: ' Battlers broken-down backers of horses still sticking to the game'.
In 1898 we find in the Bulletin: 'A bludger is about the lowest grade of human thing, and is a brothel bully.
A battler is the feminine'.
Chandler in Darkest Adelaide c.
This is still the person of the Henry Lawson tradition, who, 'with few natural advantages, works doggedly and with little reward, struggles for a livelihood and displays courage in so doing '.
But perhaps the battler of contemporary Australia is more likely to be paying down a large mortgage rather than working hard to put food on the table!
Anglers use a variety of baits for berley, such as bread, or fish heads and guts.
Poultry mash and tinned cat food make more unusual berleying material, although this pales beside a Bulletin article in 1936 suggesting 'a kerosene-tinful of rabbit carcasses boiled to a pulp' as the best berley for Murray cod.
Berley first appears in 1852 as a verb - to berley is to scatter ground-bait.
The first evidence for the noun occurs in the 1860s.
The origin of the word is unknown.
The term is first recorded in the 1920s.
In the 1950s a big note man later called a big noter was a person who handled or bet large sums of money - big notes.
In pre-decimal currency days the larger the denomination, the bigger the banknote.
Big-noting arose from the connection between flashing large sums of money about and showing off.
He had admitted producing it to 'big note' himself in the eyes of the young woman and her parents.
Foster Man of Letters: He's never been one to big-note himself.
Bikie follows a very common pattern in Australian English by incorporating the -ie or -y suffix.
This suffix works as an informal marker in the language.
In early use bikie often referred to any member of a motorcycle motorbike gang or club - often associated with youth culture.
In more recent times the term is often associated with gangs of motorcylists operating on the fringes of legality.
Bikie is first recorded in the 1960s.
For a more detailied discussion of the term see our 1967 Kings Cross Whisper Sydney xxxii: Bikie, a member of a gang or a club of people interested in motor bikes.
Some click the following article procure, distribute and sell drugs through their 'associates', who in turn sell them to kids.
The word is a borrowing from Yuwaalaraay an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and neighbouring languages.
The bilby is also known as dalgyte click to see more Western Australia and pinky in South Australia.
Since the early 1990s there have been attempts to replace the Easter bunny with the Easter bilby.
At Easter it is now possible to buy chocolate bilbies.
Bilby is first recorded in the 1870s.
Billabongs are often formed when floodwaters recede.
First recorded in the 1830s.
Possibly reinforced by bouilli tin recorded 1858 in Australia and 1852 in New Zealand, with variant bully tin recorded in New Zealand in 1849 but not until 1920 in Australiaan empty tin that had contained preserved boeuf bouilli 'bully beef', used as a container for cooking.
It is not, as popularly thought, related to the Aboriginal word billabong.
Billy is first recorded in the 1840s.
Burrows Adventures of a Mounted Trooper in the Australain Constabulary: A 'billy' is a tin vessel, something between a saucepan and a kettle, always black outside from being constantly on the fire, and looking brown inside from the quantity of tea that is generally to be seen in it.
Billycart is a shortened form of the Australian term billy-goat cart which dates back to the 1860s.
In earlier times the term applied to a small cart, often two-wheeled, that was pulled by a goat.
These billycarts were used for such purposes as home deliveries, and they were also used in races.
The click to see more was then applied to any homemade go-cart.
Billycart is recorded in the first decade of the 20th century.
Tyrrell Old Books: As boys, Fred and I delivered books round Sydney in a billycart.
Winton Cloudstreet: Bits of busted billycarts and boxes litter the place beneath the sagging clothesline.
Bindi-eye is oftened shortened to bindi, and can be spelt in several ways including bindy-eye and bindii.
The word is from the Gamilaraay and Yuwaalaraay Aboriginal languages of northern New South Wales.
Bindi-eye is usually considered a weed when found in one's lawn.
Many a child's play has been painfully interrupted by the sharp barbs of the plant which have a habit of sticking into the sole of one's foot.
Bindy-eye is first recorded in the 1890s.
Bingle is perhaps from Cornish dialect bing 'a thump or blow'.
Most other words derived from Cornish dialect in Australian English were originally related to mining, including fossick.
The word is frequently used to refer to a car collision.
Bingle is first recorded in the 1940s.
Carr Surfie: There was this clang of metal on metal and both cars lurched over to the shoulder and we nearly went for a bingle.
A dog or other animal which is made up of a bit of this and a bit of that.
This meaning is common today, but when bitser first appeared in the 1920s it referred to any contraption or vehicle that was made of spare parts, or had odd bits and pieces added.
The small girl pondered.
My friends call him a "bitzer"', she replied.
My favourite was a bitser named Sheila.
Anywhere beyond the black stump is beyond civilisation, deep in the outback, whereas something this side of the black stump belongs to the known world.
Although the towns of Blackall, Coolah and Merriwagga each claim to possess the original black stump, a single stump is unlikely to be the origin of this term.
It is more probable that the burnt and blackened tree stumps, ubiquitous in the outback, and used as markers when giving directions to travellers is the origin - this sense of black stump is recorded from 1831.
Tracks have been made, commencing nowhere and ending the same, roads have been constructed haphazard, bridges have been built that had no roads leading either to or from them, railways have terminated at the proverbial black stump.
Wynnum I'm Jack, all Right: It's way back o' Bourke.
Beyond the Black Stump.
Not shown on the petrol station maps, even.
Blind Freddy A very unperceptive person; such a person as a type.
This term often appears in the phrase even blind Freddy could see that.
Although the term may not derive from an actual person, early commentators associate it with a blind Sydney character or characters.
Australian lexicographer Sidney Baker wrote in 1966 that 'Legend has it that there was a blind hawker in Sydney in the 1920s, named Freddy, whose blindness did not prevent his moving freely about the central city area'.
Other commentators suggest a character who frequented various Sydney sporting venues in the first decades of the 20th century could be the original Freddy.
The term itself is first recorded in 1911.
Scourfield As the River Runs: Blind Freddie could see Emerald Gorge is a natural dam site.
It applied to a person of great heart, who displayed courage, loyalty, and mateship.
This verb derives from the noun blouse meaning 'the silk jacket worn by a jockey'.
As the origin of this word would indicate, much of the evidence is from the sport of horseracing.
First recorded in the 1980s.
For a detailed discussion of blouse see our 2001 Herald Sun Melbourne 22 June: Four years ago at this ground - Mark Taylor's last one-day appearance for Australia - England smashed 4-253 to blouse Australia on a typically good batting strip.
The word is ultimately a shortening of bludgeoner.
A bludgeoner not surprisingly was a person who carried a bludgeon 'a short stout stick or club'.
It appears in a mid-nineteenth century English slang dictionary as a term for 'a low thief, who does not hesitate to use violence'.
By the 1880s the 'prostitute's pimp' sense of bludger is found in Australian sources.
In the Sydney Slang Dictionary of 1882 bludgers are defined as 'plunderers in company with prostitutes'.
Cornelius Crowe, in his Australian Slang Dictionary 1895defines a bludger as 'a thief who will use his bludgeon and lives on the gains of immoral women'.
Thus bludger came to mean 'one who lives on the earnings of a prostitute'.
It retained this meaning until the mid-20th century.
Thus Dorothy Hewett in her play Bobbin Up 1959 writes: 'But what about libel?
From the early twentieth century it moved out to be a more general term of abuse, especially as applied to a person who appears to live off the efforts of others as a pimp lives on the earnings of a prostitute.
It was then used to refer to a person engaged in non-manual labour - a white-collar worker.
This sense appears as early as 1910, but its typical use is represented by this passage from D.
Whitington's Treasure Upon Earth 1957 : '"Bludgers" he dubbed them early, because in his language anyone who did not work with his hands at a laboring job was a bludger'.
And so it came to mean 'an idler, one who makes little effort'.
In the war newspaper Ack Ack News in 1942 we find: 'Who said our sappers are bludgers?
Cleary in Just let me be writes: 'Everything I backed ran like a no-hoper.
Four certs I had, and the bludgers were so far back the ambulance nearly had to bring 'em home'.
And thence to 'a person who does not make a fair contribution to a cost, enterprise etc.
Niland writes in The Shiralee 1955 : 'Put the nips into me for tea and sugar and tobacco in his usual style.
The biggest bludger in the country'.
O'Grady writes: 'When it comes to your turn, return the "shout".
Otherwise the word will spread that you are a "bludger", and there is no worse thing to be'.
The term dole bludger i.
An early example from the Bulletin encapsulates the derogatory tone: 'A genuine dole bludger, a particularly literate young man.
From the following year we have a citation indicating a reaction to the use of the term: Cattleman Rockhampton 'Young people are being forced from their country homes because of a lack of work opportunities and the only response from these so-called political protectors is to label them as dole bludgers'.
Throughout the history of the word, most bludgers appear to have been male.
The term bludgeress made a brief appearance in the first decade of this century - 'Latterly, bludgers, so the police say, are marrying bludgeresses' 1908 Truth 27 September - but it was shortlived.
The most common is the swag i.
The earliest evidence for bluey as a swag is from 1878 where the bluey is humped as it was by the itinerant bush worker tramping the wallaby track in the works of writers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson.
This image an Australian stereotype is epitomised in the following 1899 quotation for bluey: There's the everlasting swaggie with his bluey on his back who is striking out for sunset on the Never-never track.
Cross, George and Widda-Woman 1981 That bluey is later transferred to luggage in general, is perhaps not surprising in an urban society which romanticises its 'bush' tradition: Where's yer bluey?
Duffy, Outside Pub 1963 In Tasmania, a bluey or Tasmanian bluey is: a rough overcoat of blue-grey woollen, to be worn by those doing outdoor work during inclement weather.
Canberra Times 19 Nov.
The word has been used to denote another item of clothing - denim working trousers or overalls - but the citation evidence indicates the last citation being 1950 that this usage is no longer current.
More familiar is the use of bluey to describe a summons, especially for a traffic offence originally printed on blue paper : Imagine my shock upon returning to a bluey at the end of the day.
Choice 2 April 1986 Perhaps the most Australian use of bluey is the curious use of it to describe a red-headed person first recorded in 1906 : 1936 A.
Paterson, Shearer's Colt: 'Bluey', as the crowd called him, had found another winner.
All red-haired men are called 'Bluey' in Australia for some reason or other.
Conquest, Dusty Distances: I found out later that he was a native of New South Wales, called ' Bluey because of his red hair - typical Australian logic.
A more literal use of bluey in Australian English is its application to fauna whose names begin with blue and which is predominantly blue in colour: 1961 Bulletin 31 May: We call them blue martins.
Ornithologists refer to them as some species of wood swallow.
They're all 'blueys' to us.
The obsolete bodger probably derives from British dialect bodge 'to work clumsily'.
In Australian English in the 1940s and 1950s bodger meant: 'Something or occasionally someone which is fake, false, or worthless'.
The noun was also used adjectivally.
Typical uses: 1950 F.
Hardy, Power without Glory: This entailed the addition of as many more 'bodger' votes as possible.
Baker, The Australian Language: An earlier underworld and Army use of bodger for something faked, worthless or shoddy.
For example, a faked receipt or false name.
White, Silent Reach: This heap is hot - else why did they give it a one-coat spray job over the original white duco and fix it with bodgie number plates?
In the 1950s another sense of bodgie arose.
The word was used to describe a male youth, distinguished by his conformity to certain fashions of dress and larrikin behaviour; analogous to the British 'teddy boy': 1950 Sunday Telegraph Sydney 7 May: The bizarre uniform of the 'bodgey' - belted velvet cord jacket, bright blue sports coat without a tie, brown trousers narrowed at the ankle, shaggy Cornel Wilde haircut.
This sense of bodgie seems to be an abbreviation of the word bodger with the addition of the -ie -y suffix.
One explanation for the development of the teenage larrikin sense was offered in the Age Melbourne in 1983: Mr Hewett says his research indicates that the term 'bodgie' arose around the Darlinghurst area in Sydney.
It was just after the end of World War II and rationing had caused a flourishing black market in American-made cloth.
The early evidence is largely confined to teenage slang.
Some lexicographers have suspected that the term may derive from the Bogan River and district in western New South Wales, but this is far from certain, and it seems more likely to be an unrelated coinage.
The term became widespread after it was used in the late 1980s by the fictitious schoolgirl 'Kylie Mole' in the television series The Comedy Company.
Someone who wears their socks the wrong way or has the same number of holes in both legs of their stockings.
The earliest evidence we have been able to find for the term is in the surfing magazine Tracks September 1985: 'So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens boots for all you uninformed bogans?
The term has also generated a number of other terms including bogan chick, boganhood, and cashed-up bogan CUB.
She had a quiet, middle-class upbringing in Box Hill, attending a private girls' school.
Our geographic reach is flexible; residents of Taree and like communities, for example, may readily qualify for Boganhood, usually with little or no burdensome paperwork.
I'm a bogan because I'm overweight.
For further discussions of bogan see our from Novemeber 2008, and a 2015 article in our newsletter Ozwords.
Bogey is a borrowing from the Aboriginal Sydney Language.
The earliest records show the term being used in the pidgin English of Aborigines: 1788 Historical Records of New South Wales II: I have bathed, or have been bathing.
These were Colby's words on coming out of the water.
Dawson, Present State of Australia: 'Top bit, massa, bogy,' bathe and he threw himself into the water.
By the 1840s it was naturalised in Australian English: 1841 Historical Records of Australia: I suppose you want your Boat, Sir; Yes, said Mr Dixon; well, said Crabb I suppose we must bogey for it.
Yes, said Mr Dixon, any two of ye that can swim.
In Australian English a noun meaning 'a swim or bathe; a bath' was formed from the verb: 1847 A.
Harris, Settlers and Convicts: In the cool of the evening had a 'bogie' bathe in the river.
Howell, Diggings and Bush: Florence was much amused the other evening by her enquiring if she Flory was going down to the water to have a 'bogey'.
Flory was much puzzled till she found out that a 'bogey', in colonial phraseology, meant a bath.
Mackenzie, Aurukun Diary: A bogey is the Queensland outback word for a bath or bathe.
A bogey hole is a 'swimming or bathing hole'.
The verb is rare now in Australian English.
For an earlier discussion of bogey see our bombora A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes in very calm weather or at high tide merely swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water.
The word is now commonly used for the reef or rock itself.
Horrobin Guide to Favourite Australian Fish ed.
Bombora probably derives from the Aboriginal Sydney Language where it may have referred specifically to the current off Dobroyd Head, Port Jackson.
The term is mostly used in New South Wales, where there are numerous bomboras along the coast, often close to cliffs.
Bondi tram: shoot through like a Bondi tram Used allusively to refer to a hasty departure or speedy action.
Bondi is the Sydney suburb renowned worldwide for its surf beach.
Trams last ran on the line in 1960, but the phrase has remained a part of Australian English.
Bonzer is possibly an alteration of the now obsolete Australian word bonster with the same meaning which perhaps ultimately derives from British dialect bouncer 'anything very large of its kind'.
In the early records the spelling bonzer alternates with bonser, bonza, and bonzor.
The adjective, noun, and adverb are all recorded from the early years of the 20th century: noun 1903 Morning Post Cairns 5 June: The little pony outlaw is wonderfully fast at disposing of his mounts.
Yuong Jack Hansen undertook to sit him but failed at every attempt.
Jack states he got a 'bonza on the napper', at one time when thrown.
Boofhead derives from buffle-headed 'having a head like a buffalo' OED and bufflehead 'a fool, blockhead, stupid fellow' OED.
Bufflehead has disappeared from standard English, but survives in its Australian form boofhead.
It was popularised by the use of boofhead as the name of a dimwitted comic strip character invented by R.
Clark and introduced in the Sydney Daily Mail in May 1941.
For an earlier discussion of the word see our 1943 Australian Women's Weekly Sydney 16 January: Many a time when his round head nodded wisely in accord with the sergeant's explanations, the sergeant was tempted to think: 'I don't believe the boof-head knows what I'm talking about.
We get their boofheads so they can have ours.
The word was borrowed from an Aboriginal language in the early years of European settlement, but the exact language is still uncertain.
Early evidence suggests it was borrowed from a language in, or just south of, the Sydney region.
The Australian Aboriginal boomerang is a crescent-shaped wooden implement used as a missile or club, in hunting or warfare, and for recreational purposes.
The best-known type of boomerang, used primarily for recreation, can be made to circle in flight and return to the thrower.
Although boomerang-like objects were known in other parts of the world, the earliest examples and the greatest diversity of design is found in Australia.
A specimen of a preserved boomerang has been found at Wyrie Swamp in South Australia and is dated at 10,000 years old.
Boomerangs were not known throughout the entirety of Australia, being absent from the west of South Australia, the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, north-east Arnhem Land, and Tasmania.
In some regions boomerangs are decorated with designs that are either painted or cut into the wood.
Very early in Australian English the us visa availability hyderabad 2020 boomerang was used in transferred and figurative senses, especially with reference to something which returns to or recoils upon its author.
These senses are now part of International English, but it is interesting to look at the earliest Australian evidence for the process of transfer and figurative use: 1846 Boston Daily Advertiser 5 May: Like the strange missile which the Australian throws, Your verbal boomerang slaps you on the nose.
By the 1850s boomerang had also developed as a verb in Australian English, meaning 'to hit someone or something with a boomerang; to throw something in the manner of a boomerang'.
By the 1890s the verbal sense developed another meaning: 'to return in the manner of a boomerang; to recoil upon the author ; to ricochet'.
The earliest evidence for this sense occurs in the Brisbane Worker newspaper from 16 May 1891: Australia's a big country An' Freedom's humping bluey And Freedom's on the wallaby Oh don't you hear her Cooee, She's just begun to boomerang She'll knock the tyrants silly.
On 13 November 1979 the Canberra Times reported that 'Greg Chappell's decision to send England in appeared to have boomeranged'.
These verbal senses of boomerang have also moved into International English.
For a further discussion of boomerang see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
The phrase is first recorded in the 1940s.
In the late 1970s a large number of bottom of the harbour schemes were operating in corporate Australia.
The term is usually used attributively.
Hyland Diamond Dove: The feller in the dock was some fabulous creature - part lawyer, part farmer - who'd been caught in a bottom-of-the-harbour tax avoidance scheme.
This sense of boundary rider is recorded from the 1860s but in more recent years, as a result of changes in technology and modes of transport, this occupation has become relatively rare.
Since the 1980s the term has been used of a boundary umpire in Australian Rules Football, a cricketer in a fielding position near the boundary, and a roving reporter at a sporting game.
For a more detailed discussion of the original sense of boundary rider and the later sporting senses see our 1885 Illustrated Australian News Melbourne 30 September: The duties of deposit usa 2020 casinos no boundary rider for the most part consist in riding round the fences every day, seeing that they are all in good order, blocking up any panels that may be broken, putting out strangers that is stock that have strayed on to the runand, in fact, doing all that may pertain to keeping his master's stock on his own land, and everybody's else out of it.
McGinnis Tracking North: Mechanisation had finally reached the open-range country.
There were no more pumpers or boundary riders.
Bradbury: do a Bradbury Be the unlikely winner of an event; to win an event coming from well behind.
The phrase comes from the name of Steven Bradbury, who won a gold medal in speed skating at the 2002 Winter Olympics after his opponents fell.
The Socceroos need some of that luck.
The term is a specific use of branch meaning 'a local division of a political party'.
While the practice described by branch stacking has been around for a very long time, the word itself is first recorded in the 1960s.
It is likely that this expression was first used in horseracing to refer to a horse that moved very quickly out of the starting gates.
First recorded in the 1960s.
Bray Blossom: 'Come on youse blokes!
First sign of a better offer and they are off like a bride's nightie.
There are many stories of new arrivals in Australia being bamboozled by the instruction to bring a plate.
As the locals know, a plate alone will not do.
In earlier days the request was often ladies a plate, sometimes followed by gentlemen a donation.
First recorded in the 1920s.
Ladies bring a plate.
Please bring a plate.
The origin for this term is still disputed.
Curr in Australian Race 1887 gives booramby meaning 'wild' in the language of the Pitjara or Pidjara or Bidjara people of the region at the headwaters of the Warrego and Nogoa Rivers in south-western Queensland.
This is in the general location of the earliest evidence, but the language evidence has not been subsequently confirmed.
This origin was popularised by Paterson in an introduction to his poem 'Brumby's run' printed in 1894.
A common suggestion is that brumby derives from the proper name Brumby.
This theory was also noted by E.
Morris in Austral English in 1898: 'A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name Brumby, viz.
Over the years, various Messrs Brumby have been postulated as the origin.
More recently, Dymphna Lonergan suggested that the word comes from Irish word bromaigh, the plural form of the word for a young horse, or colt.
For a more detailed discussion concerning the origin of the term brumby see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
McGinnis Wildhorse Creek: The country's rotten with brumbies.
One explanation for the origin of the term is that it comes from the name of the convict William Buckley, who escaped from Port Phillip in 1803 and lived for 32 years with Aboriginal people in southern Victoria.
A second explanation links the phrase to the Melbourne firm of Buckley and Nunn established in 1851suggesting that a pun developed on the 'Nunn' part of the firm's name with 'none' and that this gave rise to the formulation 'there are just two chances, Buckley's and none'.
This second explanation appears to have arisen after the original phrase was established.
For an earlier discussion about the origin of the term buckley's chance see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
It should have been Buckley.
Olympus explains that he altered it because he didn't want the Fitzroy men to have 'Buckley's chance'.
The Australian term is probably a variation of the international English grape smugglers for such a garment.
Budgie smugglers is one of the numerous Australian words for this particular garment others include bathers, cossies, speedos, swimmers, and togs.
Budgie is a shortening of budgerigar - from Kamilaroi an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and southern Queenslandand designates a small green and yellow parrot which has become a popular caged bird.
The term is a jocular allusion to the appearance of the garment.
Budgie smugglers is first recorded in the late 1990s.
For a more detailed discussion of the word see our.
That, and a thin pair of Speedos so figure-hugging you can see every goosebump - flimsy togs that are known not-all-that-affectionately by us Brown boys as budgie smugglers!
Roads or tracks covered with bulldust may be a hazard for livestock and vehicles, which can become bogged in it.
It is probably called bulldust because it resembles the soil trampled by cattle in stockyards.
The word can also be used as a polite way of saying bullshit.
Both senses of the word are first recorded in the 1920s.
This 'bull' dust might be about two feet deep, and cakes on the surface, so that it is hard to penetrate.
Cleary Climate of Courage: 'I'm seventy-five per cent Irish', said Mick.
The phrase is first recorded in the 1930s.
I told him that nothing would get within a 'bull's roar' of Agricolo to interfere with him, and such was the case.
The term is often found in this phrasal form where it now has several meanings: 'to be financially bankrupt, to come to nought; to fail, to collapse, to break down'.
These figurative senses of bung emerged in the late 19th century.
Descriptions of it vary greatly.
Some give it crap english meaning acronym frightful human head and an animal body.
Many descriptions emphasise its threat to humans and its loud booming at night.
It inhabits inland rivers, swamps, and billabongs.
The word comes from the Aboriginal Wathaurong language of Victoria.
Bunyip is first recorded in the 1840s.
For a more detailed discussion of this word see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
This is an Australian alteration of the standard English phrase give it a whirl.
Give it a burl is first recorded in the early years of the 20th century.
We'll give it a burl, eh?
We wanted to give it a burl and see how it went.
We'd do it again.
What do you think this is, bush week?
These senses of bush week go back to the early 20th century.
The phrase originally implied the notion that people from the country are easily fooled by the more sophisticated city slickers.
The speaker resents being mistaken for a country bumpkin.
The phrase is first recorded in the 1940s.
Glassop Lucky Palmer: I get smart alecks like you trying to put one over on me every minute of the day.
What do you think this is?
Murray Goodbye Lullaby: They had already been warned about the breastfeeding business.
Beat it, you two!
C Canberra bashing The act or process of criticising the Australian Government and its bureaucracy.
Canberra, the capital of Australia, has been used allusively to refer to the Australian Government and its bureaucracy since the 1920s.
The term Canberra bashing emerged in the 1970s, and is also applied in criticisms of the city itself.
For a more detailed discussion of the term see our 1976 Sun-Herald Sydney 19 February: Even Federal Liberal MPs from Tasmania feel that their electoral standing is increased by regular outbursts of 'Canberra bashing'.
Politicians on both sides have shown a willingness to put the boot into a national capital.
This term also takes the form captain's call.
Captain's pick is derived from sporting contexts in which a team captain has the discretion to choose members of the team.
The political sense emerged in Australian English in 2013.
For a more detailed discussion of this term see our 2013 Daily Telegraph Sydney : Ms Peris, who as of yesterday was yet to join the Labor party, is set to become the first indigenous ALP representative in federal parliament with an assured top place on the NT Senate ticket in what Ms Gillard described as a 'captain's pick'.
Also spelt kark, and often taking the form remarkable, emu casino codes 2020 opinion it.
The word is probably a figurative use of an earlier Australian sense of cark meaning 'the caw of a crow', which is imitative.
First recorded in the 1970s.
Beilby Gunner: 'That wog ya roughed up - well, he karked.
Nelson Petrol, Bait, Ammo and Ice: The offside rule has carked it, and good on the refs.
It is modelled on the originally British term, champagne socialist, which has a similar meaning.
The term chardonnay socialist appeared in the 1980s, not long after the grape variety Chardonnay became very popular with Australian wine drinkers.
Williamson Emerald City: I'm going to keep charting their perturbations.
This term usually refers to female checkout operators hence chick, an informal word for a young womanbut with changes in the gender makeup of the supermarket workforce the term is occasionlly applied to males.
Checkout chick is first recorded in the 1970s.
For a more detailed discussion of the term see our 1976 Canberra Times 16 June: The checkout chick is too busy taking money to tell you how to operate your cut-price, multi-purpose, plastic encased kitchen magician.
Chook comes from British dialect chuck y 'a chicken; a fowl' which is a variant of chick.
Chook is the common term for the live bird, although chook raffles, held in Australian clubs and pubs, have ready-to-cook chooks as prizes.
The term has also been transferred to refer to other birds, and often in the form old chook it can refer to a woman.
See our Word of the Month articles and for further uses of chook.
First recorded as chuckey in 1855.
Was he looking after the housemaid or the 100 little chookies?
This expression recalls an earlier time when many Australians kept chooks domestic chickens in the backyard and the dunny was a separate outhouse.
First recorded in the 1970s.
Although I must say this is a very cunning, contrived piece of legislation, if that is what they set out to do.
May their chooks turn into emus and kick their dunnies down.
Chunder possibly comes from a once-popular cartoon character, 'Chunder Loo of Akim Foo', drawn by Norman Lindsay for a series of boot polish advertisements in the early 1900s.
It is possible that 'Chunder Loo' became rhyming slang for spew.
Chunder, however, is the only form to be recorded.
The earliest evidence is associated with Australian troops in action to the north of Australia during the Second World War.
Shute A Town like Alice: The way these bloody Nips go on.
Clayton's Something that is largely illusory or exists in name only; a poor substitute or imitation.
This word derives from the proprietary name of a soft drink, sold in a bottle that looked like a whisky bottle, and marketed from 1980 as 'the drink you have when you're not having a drink'.
For a more detailed discussion of the word see our blog 1982 Sunday Telegraph Sydney 28 March: So who's the press secretary working out of the NSW Parliament whose press-gallery nickname is Clayton.
Pung Growing up Asian in Australia: My bikini top is crammed so full of rubbery 'chicken fillets' I'd probably bounce if you threw me.
These Clayton's breasts jiggle realistically when I jump up and down on the spot.
In the pastoral industry an animal that has not been branded with a mark identifying the owner can easily be stolen or lost.
The word is first recorded in the 1860s.
There are several transferred and figurative senses of cleanskin that evolved from the orgininal sense.
In the first decade of the 20th century cleanskin began to be used to describe 'an Aboriginal person who has not passed through an initiation rite'.
Also from this period on cleanskin was used figuratively of 'a person who has no criminal record; a person new to a situation or activity and lacking experience'.
From the 1980s cleanskin was also used of 'a bottle of wine without a label that identifies the maker, sold at a price cheaper than comparable labelled bottles; the wine in such a bottle'.
Keenan The Horses too are Gone: In the rangelands an unbranded calf becomes a cleanskin and cleanskins belong to the first person capable of planting a brand on the rump.
The word probably derives from the Yiddish word chaber 'comrade'.
It is likely that these terms, as well as cobber, found their way into London slang especially from the Jewish population living in the East Endand from there, via British migrants, into Australian English.
It is sometimes suggested that cobber derives from British dialect.
The English Dialect Dictionary lists the word cob 'to take a liking to any one; to "cotton" to', but the evidence is from only one Suffolk source, and the dictionary adds: 'Not known to our other correspondents'.
This Suffolk word is sometimes proposed as the origin of cobber, but its dialect evidence is very limited.
Cobber, now somewhat dated, is rarely used by young Australians.
First recorded in the 1890s.
In Australia there are a number of cockies including cow cockies, cane cockies and wheat cockies.
Cocky arose in the 1870s and is an abbreviation of cockatoo farmer.
This was then a disparaging term for small-scale farmers, probably because of their habit of using a small area of land for a short time and then moving on, in the perceived manner of cockatoos feeding.
The foundations of European settlement in Australia are based on the transportation of tens of thousands of prisoners from the British Isles.
The word is a specific codes pokerstars 2020 deposit of convict 'a condemned criminal serving a sentence of penal servitude' OED.
While in America convict is still used to refer to a prisoner, in Australia it is now largely historical.
For a further discussion of this word see our blog And for a discussion of words associated with Australia's convicts see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
Angas Description of the Barossa Range: No convicts are transported to this place, for South Australia is not a penal colony.
The iconic call of the Australian bush comes from the Aboriginal Sydney language word gawi or guwi meaning 'come here'.
Cooee is recorded from the early years of European settlement in Sydney.
It is often found in the phrase within cooee meaning 'within earshot; within reach, near'.
Cunningham Two Years in New South Wales: In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use of the word Coo-ee, as we do the word Hollo, prolonging the sound of the coo, and closing that of the ee with a shrill jerk.
Lambert Watermen: If I ever see you within coo-ee of my boat again, I'll drown you.
The word is a borrowing from Yuwaaliyaay and neighbouring languagesan Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales.
In the earlier period it was was spelt in various ways, including coolabah, coolobar, and coolybah.
It is term for any of several eucalypts, especially the blue-leaved Eucalyptus microtheca found across central and northern Australia, a fibrous-barked tree yielding a durable timber and occurring in seasonally flooded areas.
Coolibah is first recorded in the 1870s.
Crook means bad in a general sense, and also in more specific senses too: unwell or injured a crook kneeand dishonest or illegal he was accused of crook dealings.
All senses are recorded from the 1890s.
Pratt Wolaroi's Cup: Most stables.
Clune Roaming Round the Darling: My cobber, here, used to sing in opera.
He's a pretty crook singer, but he'll sing for you.
I went to the GP on Monday and before I knew it I was in emergency and then off to Brisbane.
The phrase now often with some variations was originally the title of a a revue at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydney 1965.
These terms are now obsolete.
These were called currency.
First recorded in the 1820s.
D dag An unfashionable person; a person lacking style or character; a socially awkward adolescent, a 'nerd'.
These senses of dag derive from an earlier Australian sense of dag meaning 'a "character", someone eccentric but entertainingly so'.
Ultimately all these senses of dag are probably derived from the British dialect especially in children's speech sense of dag meaning a 'feat of skill', 'a daring feat among boys', and the phrase to have a dag at meaning 'to have a shot at'.
The Australian senses of dag may have also been influenecd by the word wag a habitual jokerand other Australian senses of dag referring to sheep see rattle your dags below.
Dag referring to an unfashionable person etc.
Never ever wear a striped suit, a striped shirt and a striped tie together - just dreadful.
You look like a real dag.
When a daggy sheep runs, the dried dags knock together to make a rattling sound.
The word dag originally daglock was a British dialect word that was borrowed into mainstream Australian English in the 1870s.
The phrase is first recorded in the 1980s.
Thorne Battler: C'mon Mum, rattle yer dags - the old girls are hungry!
Dak derives from another Australian term daks meaning 'a pair of trousers'.
The term is first recorded from the early 1990s but is probably much older than that.
For a more detailed discussion of dak see our 1994 Age Melbourne 24 July: We played footy together, but his recognition was going on to play for Footscray; I was the little fella so mine was getting dakked every pie night.
His family didn't know about it until he was dacked during a game this year.
Because it was the most common form of bread for bush workers in the nineteenth century, to earn your damper means to be worth your pay.
First recorded in the 1820s.
Bisley Stillways: We made damper out of flour and water, https://healthcareinsuranceplan.info/2020/raging-bull-casino-no-deposit-bonus-codes-march-2020.html it around green sticks to cook over the coals.
Anzac Day, April 25, is a national public holiday in Australia commemorating go here those who have served and died in war.
It is the anniversary of the landing at Gallipoli of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ANZAC troops in 1915.
While commemorative services have been held on April 25 since 1916, the term dawn service is not recorded until the 1920s.
It is a long, wooden, tubular instrument that produces a low-pitched, resonant sound with complex, rhythmic patterns but little tonal variation.
In popular understanding many Australians probably believe that this is an Aboriginal word.
Indeed, the 1988 edition of the Australian National Dictionary attributed it to the Yolngu language of northern Queensland.
Subsequent research has cast doubt on this etymology, and in 1990 the following statement was made in Australian Aboriginal Words in English: 'Although it has been suggested that this must be a borrowing from an Australian language it is not one.
The name probably evolved from white people's ad hoc imitation of the sound of the instrument'.
This argument is supported by two of the earliest pieces of evidence for the term: 1918 Richmond Guardian Melbourne : 'At Darwin the nigger crew is making merry with the Diridgery doo and the eternal ya-ya-ya ye-ye-ye cry'.
It produces but one sound - 'didjerry, didjerry, didjerry -' and so on ad infinitum.
The term was applied during the First World War to Australian and New Zealand soldiers because so much of their time was spent digging trenches.
Billy Hughes, prime minister during the First World War, was known as the Little Digger.
First recorded in this sense 1916.
It came to France when the sandgropers gave up digging on the goldfields of W.
They include a major who planned an 'unprecedented operation' to capture a rogue Afghan sergeant who murdered three Australian diggers.
This word is a shortening of fair dinkum which comes from British dialect.
The compound fair dinkum 'fair dealing which is just and equitable' is recorded from Lincolnshire in 1881, and is the equivalent of West Yorkshire fair doos fair dealing.
The adjective is first recorded in Australia from the 1890s.
For a more detailed discussion of dinkum see the article on our blog.
The starting point is to make the debate more dinkum.
The phrase was first recorded in 1847.
This may give a clue to the source of the phrase.
If you are done like a dinner, you are completely and efficiently demolished.
Bride Letters from Victorian Pioneers: The horse swam for a quarter of a mile down the river with the cart after him.
The word is probably related to British dialect dob meaning 'to put down an article heavily or clumsily; to throw down', and 'to throw stones etc.
Dob is first recorded in the 1950s.
For a more detailed discussion of this term see the article on our blog.
Bisley Stillways: He used to sell single cigarettes to kids, and although it was common knowledge, he had never been busted and no one ever dobbed on him.
This example illustrates the way the origins of words and phrases can be lost with changes in technology.
The expression has several variants including fed up to dolly's wax, and its meaning does not always denote being 'full' with food.
First recorded in the early 20th century.
And I am fed up to dolly's wax with them.
Voters who merely number the candidates in the order they are listed on the ballot paper without regard for the merits of the candidates are casting a donkey vote - that is, a stupid vote.
First recorded in the early mid-20th century.
In South Australia this vote - the 'donkey vote' - will go to the Anti-Communists.
Dorothy Dixer Dorothy Dix A parliamentary question asked of a Minister by a member of the party in government to give the Minister the opportunity to deliver a prepared reply.
It comes from Dorothy Dix, the pen-name of Elizabeth Gilmer 1870-1951an American journalist who wrote a famous personal advice column which was syndicated in Australia.
Her column came to seem a little too contrived, as if she was writing the questions as well as the answers.
First recorded in the 1930s.
For a discussion about the use of Dorothy Dixer in rhyming slang see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
One of those came from Mr Hutchin, and there were cries of 'Dorothy Dix' when he asked it.
When a Minister is anxious to make some information available, or to answer some outside criticism, he will often get a private member to ask a question on the subject.
And it was not her husky voice or hair or makeup that stopped traffic, but the rows and rows of pearls.
The term also takes the form dreaming.
Dreamtime is a translation of alcheringa - a word from the Arrernte Aboriginal language of the Alice Springs region in central Australia.
The term is first recorded in the 1890s.
Attenborough Quest Under Capricorn: Although the Dreamtime was in the past, it is also co-existent with the present, and a man, by performing the rituals, can become one with his 'dreaming' and experience eternity.
It is to seek this mystical union that the men enact the ceremonies.
There is also a bird called a drongo.
The spangled drongo is found in northern and eastern Australia, as well as in the islands to the north of Australia, and further north to India and China.
It is called a drongo because that is the name of a bird from the same family in northern Madagascar.
The spangled drongo is not a stupid bird.
It is not a galah.
One book describes it thus: 'The spangled drongo catches insects in the air, chasing them in aerobatic flight'.
There is one odd story about the drongo, however: unlike most migratory birds, it appears to migrate to colder regions in winter.
Some have suggested that this is the origin of the association of 'stupidity' with the term drongo.
But this seems most unlikely.
So what is the true story?
There was an Australian racehorse called Drongo during the early 1920s.
It seems likely that he was named after the bird called the 'drongo'.
He wasn't a an absolute no-hoper of a racehorse: he ran second in a VRC Derby and St Leger, third in the AJC St Leger, and fifth in the 1924 Sydney Cup.
He often came very close to winning major races, but in 37 starts he never won a race.
In 1924 a writer in the Melbourne Argus comments: 'Drongo is sure to be a very hard horse to beat.
He is improving with every run'.
But he never did win.
Soon after the horse's retirement it seems that racegoers started to apply the term to horses that were having similarly unlucky careers.
Soon after the term became more negative, and was applied also to people who were not so much 'unlucky' as 'hopeless cases', 'no-hopers', and thereafter 'fools'.
In the 1940s it was applied to recruits in the Royal Australian Air Force.
It has become part of general Australian slang.
In an emergency he runs heroically in the wrong direction.
If he were Superman he would get locked in the telephone box.
So he is a drongo.
The origin of the term was revived at Flemington in 1977 when a Drongo Handicap was held.
Only apprentice jockeys were allowed to ride.
The horses entered were not allowed to have won a race in the previous twelve months.
Goode Through the Farm Gate: I can't believe my drongo of a father is asking such ridiculous questions.
The term is often associated with the fooling of gullible international tourists, and has accordingly been used this way in television advertisements.
There are suggestions that the term drop bear emerged in the Second World War period see 1982 quotation below but the first record is from the 1980s.
Keesing Lily on a Dustbin: The 'drop bears' are creatures of a tall story - they were invented during World War II for the benefit of gullible American servicemen.
It is alleged that 'drop bears' are a dangerous kind of koala and that they drop out of trees on the heads and shoulders of bush walkers and hug them to death.
Colbert The Ranch: The other Harry has got a head like a drover's dog and always wears a hat.
Courtenay: We'd heard Nancy say he'd come back like a drover's dog all prick and ribs.
A warning cry from a male as a signal to other men that a woman is approaching a traditionally all-male environment.
It is a reminder that the men should modify their language and behaviour to avoid giving offence.
It was first used in shearing sheds, but is now heard in other places, especially in a pub.
While the first written evidence comes from the early 1980s the phrase probably goes back several decades earlier.
Adam-Smith Https://healthcareinsuranceplan.info/2020/2020-slot-video-jackpots.html We Rode the Rails: I remember well enough years ago hearing them yell 'Ducks on the Pond!
Fatty Vautin and Peter Sterling reportedly held angry meetings with their producer declaring they would not speak to Wilson if she was hired.
The dunny was originally any outside toilet.
In cities and towns the pan-type dunny was emptied by the dunny man, who came round regularly with his dunny cart.
Dunny can now be used for any toilet.
The word comes from British dialect dunnekin meaning an 'earth closet, outside privy' from dung + ken 'house'.
First recorded in the 1930s but dunnekin is attested in Australian sources from the 1840s.
E earbash To subject a person to a torrent of words; to talk at great length to; to harangue.
While not a physical beating of the ears, most people can sympathise with a person who has sustained a long taking to an ear-bashing by a boring or obnoxious windbag an earbasher.
The verb is first recorded from the 1940s, and possibly comes from Australian military slang of the Second World War period.
Most Australians are surprised to discover that this is an Australian term.
The corresponding term in Britain is Thatcherism, and in the United States Reaganomics.
First recorded from the 1970s.
The ALP contains many influential spokesmen who advocate disengagement of governments from existing agricultural assistance measures.
This term developed out of an earlier verbal form recorded in the 1920semu-bob, meaning 'to pick up pieces of timber, roots, etc.
By the 1940s the verb had developed a more specific sense: 'to pick up litter'.
By the 1970s the verbal form had developed into the noun.
The term is used with allusion to an emu bending its neck toward the ground in search of food.
A common sight at barbecues, beaches, parks, and camping grounds in the summer months.
Esky is from a proprietary name of a portable insulated container, earlier an ice chest, and also earlier called Eskimo.
First recorded from the 1950s.
The Esky Auto Box keeps drinks and food cold and fresh wherever you go.
Will fit in the boot of any car.
Winton Dirt Music: They have a folding table and esky out here on the sand beside the fire.
F factory A prison for the confinement of female convicts.
Also known as a female factory.
The first such factory was established in 1804 at Parramatta in New South Wales.
It was a place of punishment, a labour and marriage agency for the colony, and a profit-making textiles factory where women made convict clothing and blankets.
There were eight other factories in the Australian convict settlements.
Australia often sees itself as an egalitarian society, the land of the fair go, where all citizens have a right to fair treatment.
It is often used as an exclamation: fair go Kev, give the kids a turn!
Sometimes it expresses disbelief: fair go—the tooth fairy?
For further discussion of this term see the article on our blog.
Both men turned pale, but struggled, calling out, 'Read the warrants to us first'.
Inspector Ahern said, 'You can hear them later', and the police seized the prisoners.
Both appealed to Mr.
Ranking, crying out, 'Do you call this a fair go, Mr.
First recorded from the 1920s.
Dubosarsky Fairy Bread: The morning of the party, Becky and her mother were in the kitchen making fairy bread.
Her baby brother sat on the floor eating the bits that fell off the table.
In 2006 Australian opposition leader Kevin Rudd famously used a variant of the phrase: 'fair shake of the sauce bottle'.
Fair suck of the sauce bottle is first recorded in the 1970s.
For a crap english meaning acronym discussion of the origin of the phrase see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
But in Australia the adjective has another meaning ' especially of a person wild, uncontrolled; unconventional; outside the conventional bounds of society; dirty, scruffy.
Feral is also used as a noun to mean 'a person living outside the conventional bounds of society; a wild or uncontrolled person.
The Australian senses of the adjective and noun are first recorded in the 1980s.
The women clashed with media crews and politicians in a series of well-documented incidents.
They were quite happy with the 'feral' tag.
They have invaded people's homes and maliciously destroyed victims' property.
Firie follows a common pattern in Australian informal English whereby a word is abbreviated in this case firefighter or fireman and the -ie or -y suffix is added.
Other examples include barbie a barbecueChrissy Christmasand rellie a relative.
Firie is recorded from the 1980s.
This phrase is usually used of a man, and implies that although he may be well-dressed and well-groomed, there is also something a bit dodgy about him.
In spite of a superficial smartness, he is not to be trusted.
In spite of the gold tooth, he is still a rat.
First recorded in the 1970s.
Eddie is as flash as a rat with a gold tooth.
McNab Dodger: What brought him unstuck were his brazen schemes and lavish lifestyle.
He was as flash as a rat with a gold tooth.
The literal sense is to lie fully stretched out like a lizardand the figurative sense means as fast as possible.
The phrase also alludes to the rapid tongue-movement of a drinking lizard.
First recorded in the 1930s.
Cornish miners probably brought the term to Australia in the 1850s and used it to describe their search for gold.
Australia inherited a number of mining terms from the Cornish, but they remain very specialised, and fossick is the only one to move out into the wider speech community.
Heidke Claudia's Big Break: 'Okay, we get the picture', said Sophie as she fossicked around in her enormous bag in search of boarding passes.
Like Fremantle, many towns have given it a local name.
Albany, Geraldton, Esperance, Eucla and Perth all have their doctor.
The term derives from the figurative application of doctor in the West Indies to 'a cool sea breeze which usually prevails during part of the day in summer', and in South Africa to 'a strong, blustery south-east wind prevailing at the Cape', from doctor 'any agent that gives or preserves health'.
Fremantle doctor is recorded from the 1870s.
At Perth, with the Fremantle Doctor up his arse, he was seriously quick.
Furphy comes from the name of a firm, J.
The term probably originated at the Broadmeadows army camp in Melbourne as a transfer from the name of the carts to the typical gossip of soldiers at sites serviced by these carts during the period of the First World War.
Furphy is first recorded in 1915.
Some of the troops do not suffer from lack of imagination.
G galah The word galah comes from Yuwaalaraay and related Aboriginal languages of northern New South Wales.
In early records it is variously spelt as galar, gillar, gulah, etc.
The word is first recorded in the 1850s.
The bird referred to is the grey-backed, pink-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus, occurring in all parts of Australia except the extreme north-east and south-west.
It is also known as the red-breasted cockatoo and rose-breasted cockatoo.
Some early settlers used the galah as food.
In 1902 the Truth newspaper reports: 'The sunburnt residents of at that God-forsaken outpost of civilisation were subsisting on stewed galah and curried crow'.
Some writers report that galah pie was a popular outback dish.
The galah, which usually appears in a large flock, has a raucous call, and it was perhaps this trait which produced the term galah session for a period allocated for private conversation, especially between women on isolated stations, over an outback radio network.
Flynn in Northern Gateway 1963 writes: 'The women's radio hour, held regularly night and morning and referred to everywhere as the 'Galah Session'.
It is a special time set aside for lonely station women to chat on whatever subject they like'.
More generally, a galah session is 'a long chat' - A.
Garve, Boomerang 1969 : 'For hours the three men chatted.
It was Dawes who said at last, "I reckon this galah session's gone on long enough".
This figurative sense is recorded from the 1930s, and derives from the perceived stupidity of the bird.
The following quotations give an indication of how the term is used: 1951 E.
Lambert Twenty Thousand Thieves: 'Yair, and I got better ideas than some of the galahs that give us our orders'.
Porteous Cattleman: 'The bloke on the other end of the line is only some useless galah tryin' to sell a new brand of dip'.
O'Grady Aussie Etiket: 'You would be the greatest bloody galah this side of the rabbit-proof fence'.
From this sense arise a number of colloquial idioms.
To be mad as a gumtree full of galahs is to be completely crazy.
To make a proper galah of oneself is to make a complete fool of oneself.
A pack of galahs is a group of contemptibly idiotic people.
While the word is recorded from the 1880s, it came to international prominence in the 1980s through check this out series of tourism advertisements where Australian actor and comedian Paul Hogan invited people from around the world to visit Australia and say g'day.
Harms Memoirs of a Mug Punter: I made it to the table where the prime minister was wielding his pen.
He didn't recognise me.
The sense comes from the United States, where it originally referred to an assistant at a sideshow whose purpose was to appear an object of disgust or derision.
The American word appears to be a variant of geck, a Scottish word from Dutch meaning 'a gesture of derision; an expression of scorn or contempt'.
In more recent times the word has been increasingly applied to a person who is obsessed with computers and computer technology.
In Australia, however, there is another meaning of the word geek.
It means 'a look', and usually appears in the phrase to have or take a geek at.
It is also used as a verb.
This Australian sense derives from British dialect Scottish and Northern England keek meaning 'to look, to peep'.
The Australian form geek appears as a verb in Cornish meaning 'to peep, peer, spy', and this is likely to be the same word as the northern keek.
The lateness of the word in Australian English, however, suggests a borrowing from the northern dialects rather than from Cornish.
Both Australian senses of the noun and verb are recorded from the early 20th century.
Hungerford Sowers of Wind: There's a circus down by the dance-hall, a Jap show.
What about having a geek at that?
The cafe has gained a steady stream of regulars for coffee, breakfast, lunch or a geek at the bikes.
This type of terrain is described as gilgaed.
A single hole is known as a gilgai, or gilgai hole.
Such holes are also known as crabholes, dead-men's graves, or melon holes.
The word comes from Wiradjuri an Aboriginal language once spoken over a vast area from southern New South Wales to northern Victoria and Gamilaraay an Aboriginal language spoken over a vast area of east-central New South Wales and extending into southern Queensland gilgaay 'waterhole'.
Gilgai if recorded from the 1860s.
Abbott Notes of a Journey on the Darling: At the blackfellows' tanks the clay excavated is still seen beside the waterholes, while in the gilgies there is no appearance of any embankment, the ground all round being perfectly level.
Kent What do you do with them on Sundays?
In other countries it is called a hope chest or bottom drawer.
The term is first recorded in 1900.
They were focused entirely on the fantasy of the day and it almost didn't matter who the groom was.
In Australian English a goog is an egg.
It is an abbreviation of the British dialect word goggy 'a child's name for an egg', retained in Scotland as goggie.
The phrase is a variation of an earlier British phrase in the same sense: full as a tick, recorded from the late 17th century.
Other Australian combinations include full as a boot, full as a Bourke Street tram, and full as a pommy complaint box.
Full as a goog is recorded from the 1930s.
The form goon may also have been influenced by an altered pronunciation of flagon.
Australia There is evidence for this term from the early 1980s.
For more about wine terms in Australian English see the article on our blog.
Birmingham Tasmanian Babes Fiasco: None of the wine he reviewed ever cost more than ten bucks a bottle.
In fact very few even came within cooee of that, mostly tapering off at five or six bucks per four litre 'goon'.
The term arose by analogy with black ban a prohibition, especially as imposed by a trade union, that prevents work from proceedingwith the colour green being associated with the environmental lobby.
Although green ban is used elsewhere, the term was recorded first in Australia in 1973.
Thomas Taming the Concrete Jungle: A unionist coined a happy phrase for such bans to save natural bush and park.
The grey nomad is a product of the baby boomer generation.
The term is recorded from the 1990s.
For a further discussion of this term see our 1995 Australian Sydney 2 December: Another rapidly growing population is the 'grey nomads' who travel from resort to resort in caravans or recreational vehicles.
The name is used attributively to designate things found in or associated with Guernsey.
Thus the term Guernsey cow for an animal of a breed of usually brown and white dairy cattle that originated in Guernsey.
In the early nineteenth century the term Guernsey shirt arose for 'a close-fitting woollen sweater, especially one worn by sailors'.
During the gold rushes in Australia in the mid nineteenth century, in a specialisation of this sense, the term guernsey was used to describe a kind of shirt worn by goldminers: 1852 F.
Lancelot Australia as it Is: The usual male attire is a pair of common slop trowsers, a blue guernsey.
In a further specialisation in Australian English, the term guernsey has been used since the 1860s to refer to a football jumper, especially as worn by a player of Australian Rules football: 1868 Geelong Advertiser 21 September: Ample evidence of a desperate struggle was afforded by the style in which they limped off the ground, some covered with nothing in the shape of a guernsey but rags, and some wanting even these.
From the football meaning there arose in the early 20th century the phrase to get a guernsey or be given a guernsey, meaning to win selection for a sporting team.
In a widening of this sense, the phrase came to mean 'to win selection, recognition, approbation', and is commonly used in non-sporting contexts: 1957 D.
Whitington Treasure upon Earth: The executive won't give me a guernsey for the Senate.
H happy as Larry Extremely happy.
The origin of this phrase is unknown, but is perhaps an arbitrary partial rhyming reduplication with 'happy'.
The phrase is used elsewhere but recorded earliest in New Zealand and Australia.
The earliest non-Australasian evidence is Irish.
Irish English has larry 'fool' from Irish learaire 'lounger, loafer', but there is no clear link to the phrase.
The Dictionary of New Zealand English suggests a Scottish origin from the Clydesdale area larrie meaning 'joking, jesting, gibing'.
The phrase is first recorded in Australian evidence from the 1880s.
Thorne Bonzer: I put my disappointment away in a drawer, and pulling on my happy-as-Larry face, toddled down towards them.
The phrase comes from a 1950s advertising jingle for the yeast-based spread Vegemite.
For a further discussion of Vegemite and to view the advertisement see the article on our blog.
Fordham Dream Keeper: We have to remember what Mummy told us, happy thoughts make for happy little Vegemites.
This term is often found in the phrase to put the hard word on: to make demands especially monetary or sexual on someone.
The term is from British dialect where it had various meanings including 'abuse, scandal, marriage proposal, refusal'.
The Australian usage is recorded from the early 20th century.
Harold Holt: to do a Harold Holt To escape; to make a rapid departure.
To do a Harold Holt is rhyming slang for bolt.
The phrase is from the name of former Australian prime minister Harold Holt who disappeared, presumed drowned, while swiming at Portsea, Victoria, in 1967.
As with other rhyming slang terms the rhyming element is often omitted, hence we sometimes see the forms to do a Harold and to do a Harry.
The phrase is recorded from the 1980s.
For a further discussion of this term see the article on our blog.
In Australia Lance Hill is commonly thought to have invented the rotary clothes hoist, but he adapted the existing design in 1946 by including his own winding mechanism.
The name hills hoist is used generically in Australia for any rotary clothes line.
As a symbol, the hills hoist has both positive and negative connotations in Australian culture.
As a negative symbol it stands for the dreary sameness and ordinariness of Australian suburbia.
I would have been up to my wrists in grey water with peas and mutton fat floating in it.
I would have been staring through chipped venetian blinds at rusted Hills hoists and broken plastic toys.
The term is from hip-pocket 'a trouser pocket that traditionally contains a wallet'.
Hip-pocket nerve is recorded from the 1940s.
This is showing up, for example, in falling real wages that inevitably will grate the hip-pocket nerve of voters.
The origin of the word is unknown.
Suggestions for its origin include: an alteration of Australian English hooer 'a prostitute, a general term of abuse'; an alteration of Australian English poon 'a simpleton or fool'; a contraction of hooligan; and the Scottish word hune 'a loiterer, a drone, a lazy, silly person'.
From the 1930s hoon referred to a lout or exhibitionist, and from the 1950s it also referred to a pimp.
The current sense referring to a reckless driver only emerged in the 1980s.
For further discussion of this term see the article in our Ozwords newsletter, and for a discussion of the term hoon operation see our 1988 Age Melbourne 14 March: You get all sorts of abuse on late-night studies around in the inner suburbs.
Particularly when you're standing out on the road, hoons drive past with bare bums hanging out of the window fairly frequently.
Dooley Big Twitch: It was into this habitat, at about 11.
Hughie Hughie is the rain god, and the appeal send it down Hughie is a request for a heavy fall of rain - the phrase is first recorded in 1912.
Since the 1950s surfers have also implored the god's name in a request for good waves.
For a further discussion about this term and its possible origins see the article in our Ozwords newsletter.
I ice block A confection of flavoured and frozen water.
Almost a necessity on hot summer days in Australia.
The ice block is sometimes called an icy pole in Australian English - a popular brand of this confection.
The term is recorded from the 1930s.
You call them iceblocks', I reply.
The word is probably formed from illy with the same meaning which is likely an alteration of the Australian word spieler meaning 'a person who engages in sharp practice; a swindler, originally a card sharper'.
To whack the illy to act as a confidence trickster and illywhacker are first recorded in Kylie Tennant's The Battlers 1941 : An illy-wacker is someone who is putting a confidence trick over, selling imitation diamond pins, new-style patent razors or infallible 'tonics'.
A man who 'wacks the illy' can be almost anything, but two of these particular illy-wackers were equipped with a dart game.
Illywhacker was becoming obsolescent in Australian English, but it was given new life when Peter Carey used it as the title of his 1985 novel.
In that novel, we find the following passage: What's an illywhacker?
When vaccinations became routine in the mid-1950s, the fear of polio diminished.
The phrase is recorded from the 1970s.
Hardy Outcasts of Foolgarah: Even the most primitive societies protect, succor and shelter the aged, but not so the affluent society with the principle of he that cannot work neither shall he eat except Silver Tails who wouldn't work in an iron lung.
Now, we are illiterate, ill-mannered, wouldn't work in an iron lung, among the worst-dressed in the world, and overall, not very happy people.
What happened, I wonder?
J jackeroo The word jackeroo was originally a Queensland term recorded from 1840 referring to a white man who lived beyond the bounds of close settlement.
Later, a jackeroo was 'a young man frequently English and of independent means seeking to gain experience by working in a supernumerary capacity on a sheep or cattle station'.
A jackeroo is now 'a person working on such a station with a view to acquiring the practical experience and management skills desirable in a station owner or manager'.
The word can also be used as a verb, meaning 'to work as a jackeroo'.
The term jilleroo is sometimes used for a female jackeroo.
Meston in Geographic History of Queensland proposed an Aboriginal origin for the term: Another word used throughout Australia is jackeroo, the term for a 'newchum', or recent arrival, who is acquiring his first colonial experience on a sheep or cattle station.
It gas a good-natured, somewhat sarcastic meaning, free from all offensive significance.
It is generally used for young fellows during their first year or two of station life.
The origin of the word is now given for the first time.
It dates back to 1838, the year the German missionaries arrived on the Brisbane River, and was the name bestowed upon them by the aboriginals.
The Brisbane blacks spoke a dialect called 'Churrabool', in which the word ' jackeroo' or ' tchaceroo' was the name of the pied crow shrike, Stripera graculina, one of the noisiest and most garrulous birds in Australia.
The blacks said the white men the missionaries were always talking, a gabbling race, and so they called them 'jackeroo', equivalent to our word 'gabblers'.
The etymology proposed by Meston appears to be without foundation.
There is no confirmatory evidence of a bird name tchaceroo in the Brisbane language, or of anything like this being applied to missionaries.
Is it possible that the term has an English origin?
The personal name Jack is often used in contexts of manual work e.
This perhaps fits the later meanings of jackeroo, but unfortunately it does not explain the original Queensland meaning.
The jury is still out on this term.
Is it possible it apk it is a Queensland Aboriginal term not for 'crow shrike' but for 'stranger'?
Hercock Desert Droving: A word of recall here about jackeroos.
They were the privileged class of learner, who ate at the homestead with the manager, not with us ringers.
Jacky Howe A navy or black sleeveless singlet cut nearly to the waist under the arms to give freedom of movement.
The Jacky Howe is worn especially by shearers and other rural workers.
His world record stood until 1950 when it was broken by a shearer using a machine.
Jacky Howe is first recorded in 1900.
Thornton Jackaroo: In his Jackie Howe, his biceps bulge, the size of footballs.
It is best known from Banjo Paterson's use of it in Waltzing Matilda.
Two of the earliest appearances of the term show Aborigines using it in pidgin English: 1824 Methodist Missionary Society Records: To two Brothers of mine, these monsters exposed several pieces of human flesh, exclaiming as they smacked their lips and stroked their breasts, 'boodjerry patta!
The origin of the word is not known.
It may possibly be from an Aboriginal language, or it may be an Aboriginal alteration of an English phrase such as jump up.
Some suggested etymologies are very fanciful indeed.
In 1896 a writer in the Bulletin suggested: The word 'jumbuck' for sheep appears originally as jimba, jombock, dambock, and dumbog.
In each case it meant the white mist preceding a shower, to which a flock of sheep bore a strong resemblance.
It seemed the only thing the aboriginal imagination could compare it to.
Whatever the case, jumbuck was a prominent word in the pidgin used by early settlers and Aborigines to communicate with one another, and was thence borrowed into many Australian Aboriginal languages as the name for the introduced animal, the sheep.
For a further discussion of jumbuck, including its possible origin in Malay, see a previous 1847 Argus Melbourne 22 October: Shearing is the great card of the season, and no settler being the owner of jumbucks can give a straight answer upon any other, than this all absorbing topic.
Barton Bastards I have Known: My favourite was a little grey mare that.
She sensed the first day I was on her that I was a novice with the jumbucks.
K kangaroo Any of the larger marsupials of the chiefly Australian family Macropodidae, with short forelimbs, a tail developed for support and balance, long feet and powerful hind limbs, enabling a swift, bounding motion.
Perhaps the most well-known Australian English word, kangaroo comes from the Guugu Yimithirr Aboriginal language of far north Queensland.
For a more detailed discussion of kangaroo, and the many words deriving from it, see our article on the Oxford Dictionaries blog, and the article in our newsletter Ozwords.
This term is recorded from the late 19th century.
In more recent years the term has been mentioned in relation to 'one-punch' assaults in Australian cities.
These assaults are usually carried out by intoxicated young men in the vicinity of nightclub and hotel venues.
This type of assault often takes the form of a single unprovoked and unexpected hit to the victim's head, sometimes resulting in serious head injuries or death.
In this context there have been calls to replace the term king-hit with 'coward punch'.
King-hit is also used as a verb.
He would give him the 'King hit' - on the point - which would knock him out.
Many Aborigines dislike the terms 'Aborigine' and 'Aboriginal' since these terms have been foisted on them, and they carry a lot of negative cultural baggage.
Not surprisingly, they have looked for alternative words, and instead of 'Aborigine' many prefer to use the word for a 'person' from a local language.
In order to understand the history of the word koori we need to crap english meaning acronym in mind the fact that when the Europeans arrived here there were about 250 languages spoken in Australia.
Way back in the past, they were no doubt related, but most of them were as different from one another as English is different from Italian or Hindi.
Some languages of south-east Australia parts of New South Wales and Victoria had a word - coorie, kory, kuri, kooli, koole - which meant 'person' or 'people'.
In the 1960s, in the form koori, it came to be used by Aborigines of these areas to mean 'Aboriginal people' or 'Aboriginal person'.
It was a means of identification.
But because of the wide variety of Aboriginal languages and cultures, koori has not gained Australia-wide acceptance, being confined to most of New South Wales and to Victoria.
Other terms are preferred in other regions: Murri over most of south and central Queensland, Bama in north Queensland, Nunga in southern South Australia, Nyoongah around Perth, Mulba in the Pilbara region, Wongi in the Kalgoorlie region, Yamitji in the Murchison River region, Yolngu in Arnhem Land, Anangu in central Australia, and Yuin on the south coast of New South Wales.
For a while Tasmanian Aborigines called themselves koories, and then Tasmanian koories to distinguish themselves from the mainland koories.
Recently, we have gathered evidence for the term muttonbird koories, a reference to the importance of muttonbirding to their traditional way of life, especially on the islands off the Tasmanian coast.
More recently, the tribal or language term Palawa is increasingly being used.
In Western Australia, however, it is a term for what is known elsewhere as a 'boomerang'.
The word came into Australian English from Noongar, an Click language spoken over a large extent of south-western Western Australia, including present-day Perth, Albany, and Esperance.
The word also occurs in other western and central Australian languages.
The word first appears in English in G.
Moore's Diary of Ten Years Eventful Life of an Early Settler in Western Australia published in 1884, but referring to an 1835 diary entry : I am sorry that nasty word 'boomerang' has been suffered to supercede the proper name.
Boomerang is a corruption used at Sydney by the white people, but not the native word, which is tur-ra-ma; but 'kiley' is the name here.
While early writers use various spellings as with Moore's kileyin the twentieth century the spelling kylie is standard.
The female personal name Kylie may be based on this word.
L lairy Flashily dressed; showy; socially unacceptable.
The term is a transferred use of British slang lairy or leery meaning 'knowing, conceited'.
Shop made suit, tight fit and cheap.
Flower in slouched hat, well over eyes.
The precise spelling of lairy was not immediately apparent, and for many years the variants leary and leery were common.
These appear now to have faded away.
Despite the uncertainty of its spelling, lairy nonetheless quickly became a standard term in Australian English, and, from the early twentieth century, writers felt able to use it without the need for quotation marks.
In 1907 for example C.
Chandler wrote in Darkest Adelaide: Sitting on the seat with him was a nice specimen of the Australian larrikin.
Not so leery, perhaps, as his prototypes of Melbourne and Sydney, but a choice specimen of his class nevertheless.
The popularity of the adjective lairy quickly spawned a noun and a verb to match.
The noun lair, meaning 'one who displays vulgarity, esp.
Sayers, Jumping Double: A hit behind the ear from one of those back street lairs.
And it remains in use today, often in the collocation mug lair, applied to someone supposed to be both stupid and vulgar, as in the description published in the Australian in August 1982 of a particular Carlton half-forward flanker as 'a mug lair and a show pony'.
The verb lair is most frequently used as a verb phrase in combination with up to mean 'behave in the manner of a lair', and has produced another adjectival use as in G.
Savage, The House Tibet 1989 : At Legal Aid I got landed with this callous bitch all laired up with these big shoulder pads and earrings like baby crocodiles.
By the 1950s the verb had produced a new extended form, lairise, with an identical meaning.
In 1960 for example the Northern Territory News commented: All they seem to think of these days is lairizing around in ten-gallon hats, flash, colored shirts, gabardine riding breeches and polished riding boots chasing a bit of fluff.
And in 1987 the Australian, in its description of a football match, said: Certain players.
The origin of this term has been hotly debated.
The cake is popularly associated with the name of Charles Wallace Baillie, Baron Lamington 1860-1940Governor of Queensland 1895-1901and although the dates of the earliest recipes line up with the governership, the attribution does not appear until the 1970s.
The early New Zealand evidence has a variety of spellings including leamington and lemmington, which may point to a different origin.
For a further discussion about the possible origins of this term see the article on our blog.
And you look at it and say to yourself, 'God, I could murder a lamington'.
This well-known Australian term is recorded from the 1890s, but originally the term was quite pejorative.
From the 1860s into the early 20th century a larrikin was 'a young urban rough, especially a member of a street gang; a hooligan'.
The term comes from British dialect larrikin 'a mischievous or frolicsome youth', ultimately a form of larking about 'indulging in mischievous fun', also attested in British dialect as larack about.
For a more detailed discussion about larrikins in Australian history see the article in our newsletter Ozwords.
Ferguson Left, Right and Centre: They appealed to the irreverence of the Australian spirit, the larrikin in us all.
The retailer lays the article by until payment is complete.
The lay-by system first appeared in the early 20th century.
Lay-by is also used as a verb.
It is said that the storerooms of most of the drapery establishments in Sydney are filled to their utmost capacity with things being bought on the 'lay by' system.
Fraser first used the phrase in his 1971 Alfred Deakin Lecture.
The phrase is now used as a stock response to complaints or whinges of any kind - 'I have to take the kids to soccer training every night this week'.
Forget that masochistic 'no pain, no gain; life wasn't meant to be easy' rot.
In 1949 Prime Minister Ben Chifley spoke of the Labor goal of social justice as 'the light on the hill, which we aim to reach by working for the betterment of mankind'.
Since then the light on the super blackjack 2020 has become a catchphrase in Australian politics, used to evoke traditional Labor values.
Menzies Afternoon Light: The Socialist objective, his 'light on the hill', must not be blotted out or obscured in this way.
Trapped in its myths, it invests itself with a historic mission of leading 'working people' to the 'light on the hill': a light whose glare now serves mainly to hide corrupt deals and tarnished ideals.
This sense is first recorded in 1896 in a Henry Lawson story.
Such a person is now often described as a little Aussie battler, a phrase first recorded in the 1970s.
M mad as a cut snake Very angry; crazy; eccentric.
The phrase also takes the form mad as a snake.
There are similar phrases in Australian English including mad as a meat axe and mad as a gumtree full of galahs.
Mad as a cut snake is first recorded in 1900.
Molloy was taken to Ipswich, examined I am informed by a medical man, and discharged.
Some surprise has been expressed at this course, for, according to all accounts, the man was, to use a colloquial expression, 'as mad as a snake'.
The term comes from a famous Australian children's book, Norman Lindsay's The Magic Pudding 1918in which the pudding renews itself as soon as slices are cut out of it.
Magic pudding is often found in political contexts, the first recording of it is when it was used by the then Australian treasurer Paul Keating see quotation below.
A mallee bull is one that lives in mallee country - poor, dry country where small scrubby eucalypt trees called mallee grow.
Any creature that survives in such difficult conditions would have to be tough and fit.
The word mallee come from the Victorian Aboriginal language Woiwurrung, but is also found in other here languages of Victoria, South Australia, and southern New South Wales.
The first evidence for the phrase is from 1879 where it appears in the form strong as a mallee bull.
News Sydney 27 May: The patient is now fit as a malee bull.
Groves Outback Life: He was as fit as a Mallee bull and drop-dead gorgeous!
The term is article source elliptical and transferred use of Manchester wares or Manchester goods 'cotton goods of the kind manufactured in Manchester' in Lancashire in England.
The city of Manchester in northern England was the centre of the English cotton industry in the 1700s and 1800s.
London sales assistants are reputed to be quite baffled by Australian customers enquiring where in the store to find manchester.
The word is recorded from the 1840s.
Please help, as I don't want bathroom manchester to tear us apart.
It can refer to a close friend or acquaintance, but can also be used ironically.
It is most most frequently used as a mode of address implying equality and goodwill.
For a very detailed discussion about the word mate in Australian English see matilda The collection of possessions and daily necessaries carried by a person travelling, usually on foot, in the bush; especially the blanket-wrapped roll carried, usually on the back or across the shoulders, by an itinerant worker; a swag.
This iconic name for a swag is best know from the title of the song 'Waltzing Matilda'.
The term is a transferred but unexplained use of the female name.
Matilda is recorded from the 1880s.
For a further discussion of the term and its possible German origins see the article in our newsletter Ozwords.
Anderson Warrigal's Way: Lugging my matilda, I walked down Normanby Road towards the Port, Port Melbourne.
Melba: do a Melba Used allusively of a person who retires but returns to their profession, especially one who makes repeated 'farewell' performances or comebacks.
The phrase refers to Australian operatic soprano Dame Nellie Melba Helen Porter Mitchell 1861—1931, whose stage name derived from her birthplace, Melbourne.
The phrase is recorded from the 1940s.
There is also a transferred sense meaning 'a certainty'.
Motza can be spelt in various forms including motsa, motser, and motzer.
The word is probably derived from the Yiddish word matse meaning ' unleavened bread'.
Motza is recorded from the early 20th century.
Menzies Ducks Crossing: As the tide goes up and down the oysters grow and three years later Bob's your uncle, you've got yourself a motza selling to the fish market in Sydney.
Moz is an abbreviated form of mozzle, which is derived from the Hebrew word mazzal meaning 'luck'.
It probably came into Australian English via German Yiddish speakers.
Put the moz on is recorded from the 1920s.
Porter The Watcher on a Cast-Iron Balcony: Mother is wishing Miss Brewer some female ill, is putting the mozz on her.
Strevens The Things We Do: 'You prick!
Mozzie also spelt mossie follows a very common pattern in Australian English whereby a word is abbreviated and the -ie or -y suffix is added.
This suffix works as an informal marker in the language.
Mozzie is now used elsewhere but is originally and chiefly Australian.
The word is recorded from the early 20th century.
Hyland Diamond Dove: Jack reckoned Bickie could smell water the way a mozzie can smell blood.
The phrase alludes to the goggle-eyed stare and sometimes gaping mouth of a fish that has been recently caught and made unconscious.
A person typically looks like a stunned mullet as the result of a sudden shock or surprise.
The phrase is recorded from 1918.
Dodson The Sharp End: I eventually managed to get him handcuffed and searched while my team-mates sat on their haunches and watched like a pair of stunned mullets.
This sense of muster is transferred from a chiefly military use of the word where it meant 'an act of calling together soldiers, sailors, prisoners, etc.
In Australia this military sense was applied specifically to a routine assembly of convicts in order to ascertain that they were all present.
Also in the colonial period muster referred to a census of the whole population of the colony, of a district, etc.
The transferred sense to livestock is recorded from the 1830s.
Mundy Our Antipodes: The riding after cattle in the bush, for the purpose of driving them in or collecting them for muster, https://healthcareinsuranceplan.info/2020/free-chips-zynga-poker-facebook.html very hard and sometimes dangerous work.
N nasho Compulsory military training, as introduced under the National Service Act of 1951.
It is also a name for a person who underwent National Service under the Act.
In the past nasho was seen as a derogatory term within the permanent military force.
The term was first recorded in 1953, but it is especially associated with those national servicemen who fought in Vietnam.
James, Unreliable Memoirs: National Service was designed to turn boys into men and make the Yellow Peril think twice about moving south.
It was universally known as Nasho.
Ned Kelly: as game as Ned Kelly Fearless in the face of odds; foolhardy.
The phrase derives from the name of Australia's most famous bushranger, who was hanged for his crimes in 1880.
Opinion on Kelly has remained divided, his critics seeing him as the worst type of colonial thug, while others have represented him as a champion of the underdog, a brave opponent of heartless authority, and a staunch Australian nationalist.
A number of terms and phrases derived from the name Ned Kelly are found in Australian English and are discussed in a 2009 article in our newsletter Ozwords.
For a discussion of the term Ned Kelly beard see our from March 2015.
And for a further discussion of as game as Ned Kelly.
The phrase is first recorded in the 1920s.
You can take me and put me in for two years if you like.
I'm no squib; I'm as "game" as "Ned" Kelly.
I went to the war when I was 15'.
Ireland, The Chosen: The other kids loved him, he was never vicious or cowardly and so brave that he was game as Ned Kelly and had a heart like Phar Lap's.
She's as game as Ned Kelly, that girl.
While the origin for this term is unknown the spelling variants neinich, nenische, and nenish suggest that it may derive from a Germanic language.
The earliest evidence takes the form neenish cake and dates to 1895.
The early evidence also reveals that there have been various recipes for this tart over the years.
On the top of the whole spread the thinnest layer possible of icing made with the white of an egg and icing sugar sufficient to form a thick paste.
With coffee, colour one half a pale yellow, and the other half a deep brown.
Ice the tarts carefully, having the top of each half dark, and the other half light, the division being exactly in the centre.
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